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Tuesday, June 27, 2023

Life in the Crusader States: Manuscript Illustrations

 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre’s scriptorium was founded in the first decades of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by monks from Europe, who brought their skills and understanding of the medium with them. For roughly 200 years, they produced illustrated manuscripts in the Holy Land. Their products exhibited exceptionally high quality and also evinced a unique hybrid style mixing elements from a variety of artistic traditions from Byzantium to the Mongols.


A portrait of King Louis IX of France from a bible produced for him in Acre.

By 1134, the Jerusalem workshop produced one of the most remarkable works of Frankish art still extant today: Queen Melisende’s Psalter. While this work created for royalty is the finest example of the quality of work performed in Jerusalem’s scriptorium, other works show it was no aberration. Throughout the half-century that followed, high-quality liturgical books were produced for those who could afford them. All testify to the hybrid artistic culture evolving at this time in which Western artists borrowed native and Byzantine Orthodox techniques, motifs and saints. Unsurprisingly, Byzantine influence was at its height in the latter two decades of this period, when the Kingdom of Jerusalem was allied with the Byzantine Empire, and Byzantine queens resided in the Frankish capital.

The negotiated surrender of Jerusalem in 1187 enabled the canons of the Holy Sepulchre to survive with their skills (and probably most of their unfinished works) intact. After the establishment of the Second Kingdom, the scriptorium was re-established in Acre. Other ateliers grew up around it, making Acre a centre for book production. One of the most outstanding books produced and illustrated in Acre is the ‘Arsenal’ bible produced for King Louis IX of France. This and other works testify to the continued existence of the Frankish or ‘crusader style’ of book illustration that incorporated Eastern and Western elements. Surprisingly, many of the existing examples of Acre’s manuscript workshops are secular works. William of Tyre’s ‘History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea’ was evidently popular, and multiple illustrated versions of this history have survived. More unusual is an illustrated version of John of Jaffa’s ‘Assizes of Jerusalem’.

Astonishingly, manuscript production continued right up to the fall of Acre. In one surviving manuscript, all the illustrations but the last are done in the distinctive Frankish style; the final illustration is distinctively Venetian. One can imagine this manuscript being rescued aboard a Venetian ship in the final days of Acre, while the artist remained behind to fight and die in the Mamluk onslaught.

The bulk of this entry is an excerpt from Dr. Schrader's comprehensive study of the crusader states.

Dr. Helena P. Schrader is also the author of six books set in the Holy Land in the Era of the Crusades.


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Monday, June 19, 2023

LIfe in the Crusader States: Architectural Decoration

The most important remnants of Frankish art dating from the twelfth century are the decorations of the key crusader shrines: The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem), the Church of the Nativity (Bethlehem) and the Church of the Annunciation (Nazareth), as well as lesser crusader structures such as the Church of St. Anne, the Baptistry on the Temple Mount and the Templar and Hospitaller Headquarters.

Mosaics in the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was dedicated on the fiftieth anniversary of the crusader capture of Jerusalem on 15 July 1149. The decorations which adorned the new structure reflected Roman, early Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque and even Arab decorative motifs along with Franco-Italian imagery. This was achieved by employing artists and craftsmen from the West and East, sculptors, masons, masters of mosaic work, and painters. Altogether, ‘it was a magnificent ecumenical statement of East and West unified in this unique Crusader sculptural ensemble’.[i]

The Church of the Nativity, the next spectacular renovation of the Frankish era, exhibits even more Eastern influence primarily because the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I was a joint sponsor of the project along with King Amalric. Here, mosaics dominated the decorative scheme, building on the remnants of the sixth-century church while adding new mosaic panels. The latter were designed and executed under the guidance of a Byzantine master by Frankish, Venetian and Byzantine craftsmen. Texts worked into the mosaics are in Greek, Latin and Syriac. In addition to the extensive mosaics, the columns were painted.

Work on a major church in Nazareth to mark the site of the Annunciation did not begin until after 1170. It was an ambitious project, with a 73-metre nave. The decoration differed dramatically from Bethlehem and Jerusalem, emphasizing sculpture rather than mosaics or frescoes. Work was not completed before Saladin’s invasion in 1187, and five of the column capitals intended for the church were buried for safekeeping. These have since been discovered and the outstanding quality of these figures initially led scholars to suspect a sculptor from southern France. Now, however, it is widely accepted that the artist was local — bearing witness to the high standard achieved by local artists in this period. The figures of the portals, tragically, have survived only as broken fragments because Baybars razed the church in 1263.

Much of the stonework done for Templar headquarters in Jerusalem, on the other hand, survived through reuse in Islamic structures because human figures were not depicted. It can be seen today, particularly in the Al-Aqsa mosque. In addition, based on sixteenth-century sketches, it appears the tombs of the first seven rulers of Jerusalem were excellent works of art. Unfortunately, the tombs themselves were severely damaged when Jerusalem fell to the Khwarazmians in 1244 and later utterly destroyed in an a fire in 1808.

Likewise, nothing remains of the furnishings and decorations of Frankish dwellings. Nevertheless, visitors from the West frequently commented on the interior adornment and paintings of the houses in the Latin East, albeit without providing descriptions precise enough to enable us to visualise them. The account of the hall in Beirut’s palace cited earlier informs us that artisans capable of producing everything from water-spewing dragons to polychrome marble that imitated flowers or hanging curtains and paving stones that mimicked ripples in the sand could be found in the crusader states. For those who could not afford polychrome marble, there was glazed and painted ceramics, wood, and plaster. The two latter media could be painted in monochrome colours or with patterns, foliage or entire scenes.

[i] See note 10, Folda, Crusader Art, 44.

The bulk of this entry is an excerpt from Dr. Schrader's comprehensive study of the crusader states.

Dr. Helena P. Schrader is also the author of six books set in the Holy Land in the Era of the Crusades.


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Sunday, June 11, 2023

Life in the Crusader States: Frankish Art - An Introduction

 Arguably, ‘one of the least known aspects about the Crusades is the art that was commissioned by the Crusaders in the Holy Land from the time they took Jerusalem in July 1099, to the time they were pushed into the sea by Mamluks in 1291’.[i] Yet, considering that the Middle Ages and the Middle East are individually renowned for the artistic embellishment of both practical and sacred objects, it is hardly surprising that the crusader states produced a wide variety of decorative art. Artistic creativity was undoubtedly stimulated by the novelty of sights and experiences that Western craftsmen encountered in the Holy Land in the era of the crusades. Overtime a unique Frankish style emerged.

Frankish art encompassed a wide array of media: stone and wooden sculpture; painting on wood (icons) and plaster (frescos); mosaics; metalworking in iron, copper, bronze, silver and gold; manuscript illumination; ivory carving; leatherworking; textiles, ceramics and glass. A thousand years of violent history, however, has ravaged the artistic legacy of the Franks. Particularly damaging to the survival of Frankish art was Muslim intolerance for Christian symbols and motifs and indeed any depiction of human figures, a popular component of Frankish art. What remains are only tantalizing remnants and references that demonstrate its diversity, quality and uniqueness. 

Studies of these surviving remnants indicate that Frankish art was neither an imitation of contemporary Western European art nor an adaptation of contemporary Eastern art. Although Frankish art was strongly influenced by European traditions, notably Romanesque art in the twelfth century and Gothic style in the thirteenth, Byzantine traditions also impacted it heavily. Indeed, Frankish art incorporated elements of Armenian, Coptic and Syrian Orthodox artistic traditions, and, to a lesser extent, Islamic and even Mongol traditions.[ii] These were melded together, resulting in a unique and distinctive artistic style.

The two features that most effectively define Frankish art are its ‘multicultural’ and ‘pious’ aspects. The multicultural facet originated in the diverse traditions that influenced it, as described above. The pious factor evolved from the location where it was produced. Most Frankish art, particularly in the twelfth century, was intended to embellish Christianity’s holy shrines or provide visitors with keepsakes from their pilgrimage. Whether bejeweled reliquaries or tin ampules for poor pilgrims to carry holy sand and holy water home, most early Frankish art had a religious component.

While this was particularly true of objects made for the transient population of crusaders and pilgrims, even items made for daily use by permanent residents — pottery, cutlery, saddles and shoes — often incorporated Christian symbols. Perhaps this was because, for more than 400 years, the native Christians were denied the right to display these symbols and were now proud to do so. Or maybe it was because the settlers who stayed in the Holy Land were particularly devout, an interpretation suggested by estimates that as much as 50 per cent of the immigrant population in the Kingdom of Jerusalem during the early decades was composed of clerics. On the other hand, art historians and archaeologists have categorised objects as Frankish in many cases based on the symbols; those period items lacking Christian, Muslim or Jewish symbols cannot be classified — yet may actually be Frankish. Ultimately, ‘the attempts of art historians to ascribe icons and artifacts to a definite ethnic-cultural and geographic setting, namely ‘Latin’, ‘Byzantine-Orthodox’ or ‘Islamic’, has created rigid mental molds and artificial barriers. These obscure the dynamics of artistic creation and their connection with production and consumption patterns’.[iii] Art in the Holy Land was dynamic, with techniques and motifs passing fluidly from one community to the next, particularly in the twelfth century.

By the thirteenth century, the pious element in Frankish art — and life generally — had become more diffused; secular art from this period is also more plentiful. For example, while most books produced in the Holy Land in the twelfth century were devotional works (e.g., prayer books, saints’ lives, psalters, gospels), by the thirteenth century, romances, histories, travel logs and law books were also being produced. On the one hand, the disproportionately high number of religiously devout residents declined as a proportion of the overall population as the Italian communes and the native ‘poulain’ population grew. On the other hand, with the loss of the great Christian shrines at Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth, the focus of the inhabitants appears to have turned more towards commerce, entertainment and luxury.

[i] Jaroslav Folda, Crusader Art: The Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 1099-1291 (Aldershot: Lund Humphries, 2008), 13.

[ii] See note 10, Folda, Crusader Art, 13.

[iii] Jacoby, David, Aspects of Everyday Life in Frankish Acre, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, (undated paper), 96.

The bulk of this entry is an excerpt from Dr. Schrader's comprehensive study of the crusader states.

Dr. Helena P. Schrader is also the author of six books set in the Holy Land in the Era of the Crusades.


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Monday, June 5, 2023

Life in the Crusader States: Domestic Archecture

 Frankish domestic architecture consisted broadly of two types: that which had been inherited through the occupation of existing structures and new buildings constructed during the Frankish era. They were of a distinctly different character as the former followed Eastern traditions based heavily on Muslim practice, while the latter was based on Western European models yet integrated key elements of Saracen architecture suitable to the environment.


Muslim architecture in the era of the crusades was remarkably homogeneous. The dominant feature was an inward orientation. Houses were built for maximum privacy, to keep strangers out and keep women in. Windows were small and set high in the wall to inhibit the ability of outsiders to see in — and thereby restricted the ability of inhabitants (particularly women) to look out. The heart of the house was the courtyard, and most of the rooms opening onto the courtyard could be accessed only via the courtyard itself. This had the effect of making each room self-contained and accessible only via one door. Courtyard houses might have rooms along anything from one to four sides of a courtyard, while the homes of the wealthy might enclose two or more courtyards. Cooking was usually done in an oven located in the courtyard.

Most Muslim houses were built with comparatively thin walls, less than a metre thick, and supported no upper story, although they might have cellars. The roofs were flat and sometimes supported by wooden columns. Water was collected on the roof and fed through pipes to cisterns. The poor built their homes of mud or mud-bricks; the rich of stone, marble and mosaic. Interiors were often plastered and whitewashed. Tiles were also occasionally used as flooring.

Rural houses in the Holy Land, however, did not follow this plan reflecting the fact that the rural population was predominantly Christian. Rural dwellings were usually  composed of a single room opening onto an enclosed courtyard. The construction materials were inferior, namely, fieldstone and rubble. Floors were of stone or packed earth. In one village, houses appeared to share a cistern. All these features are indications of poverty rather than preference.

In contrast, Europe in this period offered great variety of domestic architectural styles. Given the heterogeneous origins of Western settlers in the crusader states, it is hardly surprising that these styles are all found in structures built by settlers and their descendants in the Holy Land. The Franks built hall houses, courtyard houses, tower houses and burgage houses, the latter being a house with a narrow front on the street and a long deep interior, often standing several stories high.

While Frankish architecture drew upon these traditions, it was notably different from contemporary architecture in the West. The differences are perhaps most pronounced when looking at rural architecture. In Western Europe, peasant housing in the twelfth century was still predominantly constructed of mud and timber with pitched roofs set on wooden beams and covered by slate, tiles or thatch. Walls were thin and unsuitable for supporting an upper story. Fireplaces were non-existent, and cooking was done over a central hearth with a vent in the roof to release the smoke. Many houses of this period were divided into two parts: one for humans and one for livestock. 

In contrast, Frankish rural housing was constructed of stone, with walls as thick as 2 metres supporting barrel vaulting. Most houses were two stories with stairs sometimes built into the walls. Interior and exterior wooden stairs may also have been standard. Many Frankish rural dwellings also boasted a proper fireplace with hood and chimney. The windows were slender with a rounded top on the ground floor but larger on the upper floors. Such houses bear a striking resemblance to European twelfth- and thirteenth-century urban architecture. This reflects the Frankish rural settlers’ higher social and economic status compared to peasants in Europe and Christian peasants under Muslim rule. 

Despite occupying and adapting existing structures on arrival, some Frankish construction took place in urban areas. Here, Frankish domestic architecture differed markedly from traditional Muslim housing in being outward-oriented, i.e., facing and opening to the street or a shared courtyard. Frankish homes were also multistoried, often three — and in some cases four — stories. The upper floors were reached by either external or internal stairs, the latter of wood or carved into the thickness of the walls.

Frankish shops opened directly onto the street or courtyard; folding tables for selling goods produced in the ground-floor workshops could be lowered from wide windows on the ground floor. Merchants and shopkeepers lived on the upper stories above their shops with large upstairs windows, balconies or loggia looking out over the street or courtyard. The loggia was the result of Italian influence, and there are still several good examples of these visible today. (Loggia are open but covered porches and balconies formed by arches or supported by columns.) Some of the pillars used by the Franks were reclaimed Roman or Byzantine pillars, but the Franks were skilled at producing pillars themselves. The capitals were famous – even among their enemies – for the lifelike quality of their decoration.

Most buildings in the Middle East were crowned, then as now, by flat roofs, which were sometimes decoratively crenellated. The roof provided additional living or workspace in the form of a rooftop terrace that could be shaded from the sun by canvas awnings or a vine arbor. Whether used as a terrace or not, rooftops almost always collected rainwater, drained via clay or stone pipes into a cistern. The water was purified by allowing the sediment to settle to the bottom; water was drawn into the house through a pipe located well above the sludge. Even the humblest and smallest of urban dwellings had cisterns, often several.

Windows and doors opened onto the streets and common courtyards. The main windows and doors — those facing the front — were generally large and either round or slightly pointed; back and internal doors were sometimes square-headed. Windows, too, were often pointed or double-light rounded windows set in an arch. The large windows in formal rooms were probably glazed. Archaeological evidence suggests that Frankish window-glazing consisted either of plate glass or round glass set in plaster (the latter presumably less expensive and more common). Otherwise, windows had grates or shutters to prevent unwanted intrusions.

Exterior walls were usually plastered and whitewashed, although the homes of the wealthy were sometimes faced with marble. Interior walls were likewise either marble-faced or plastered and whitewashed. The plaster walls may have been decorated with frescoes or painted designs or borders.  Wall niches, either open or covered with curtains or wooden doors, were commonly used for storage. Plaster benches built directly against the walls of houses were another common feature. Both reduced the need for furnishings.

The floors of poorer dwellings were either beaten earth or cut out of the bedrock, while upper floors were plaster. In wealthier homes, the floors were usually flagstone on the ground floor, marble or mosaic above. Rugs and carpets were readily available, as these were one of the many products that passed through the crusader states on their way West. The use of tapestries and wall hangings was also likely. Courtyards were usually paved with cobbles.

Frankish houses frequently had fireplaces, and the better homes had indoor privies. A house in Caesarea, for example, had ceramic pipes leading from the upper floor to a sewage tank. Likewise, the houses in planned rural settlements had cisterns and elaborate plumbing. This is hardly surprising; similar arrangements for waste using ceramic pipes have been found in many Byzantine houses of roughly the same period. Many contemporary Byzantine homes also had internal water basins plastered on the inside. By the thirteenth century, residences in Western Europe also started to feature water funneled from rooftop cisterns to lavers and from these to latrines. 

Finally, no discussion of urban architecture in the crusader states would be complete without reference to gardens and fountains. To the extent possible, Frankish elites oriented their houses, so their (glazed) windows looked out at views, such as the ocean or mountains, or gardens. The Holy Land offered a variety of beautiful vegetation: trees such as palms, olives, lemons and pomegranates, and flowers such as hibiscus and oleander. Many Frankish gardens contained fountains or incorporated other kinds of irrigation to keep them green throughout the summer.

Only scattered fragments of the sophisticated urban architecture of the Franks have survived into the present. These remains have been largely obscured by subsequent changes of style and function, often making the Frankish foundations unrecognizable to the layman. Most frustrating to the historian is the loss of all the major palaces. The Franks built a royal palace in Jerusalem south of the Tower of David sometime between 1143 and 1174 and maintained a royal residence in Acre. The Lusignans had royal palaces in Nicosia and Famagusta. In addition, leading clerics such as the Patriarchs, Archbishops and Bishops maintained palaces.  While we have only one surviving description of a baronial palace, that at Beirut, the leading barons of Jerusalem all had residences in their baronies and probably palaces in Jerusalem. The barons of Cyprus had palaces in Nicosia.

Based on written accounts, we know that the Lusignan palace at Nicosia had a loggia overlooking a square and that arcades supported by columns surrounded the great hall. ‘Its great throne room, its balconies, its golden ornaments, its tapestries, pictures, organs, and clocks, its baths, gardens and menageries suggest the most sumptuous of medieval residences’.[i] The royal palace in Famagusta included arched arcades around a central courtyard. It also had a large latrine tract that has survived. Undoubtedly, the most evocative description of the palaces of the wealthy in the crusader kingdoms is provided by Wilbrand of Oldenburg, a cannon of Hildesheim, who visited the Holy Land in 1211-1212. He describes the palace of the Lord of Beirut, John d’Ibelin, as follows:

Its windows opened some on the sea, some on to delicious gardens. Its walls were paneled with plaques of poly-chrome marble; the vaulted ceiling [of the salon] was painted to resemble the sky with its stars; in the center of the [salon] was a fountain, and round it mosaics depicting the waves of the sea edged with sands so lifelike that [the bishop] feared to tread on them lest he should leave a foot mark.[ii]

 Unfortunately, nothing of this palace remains today, and the archaeological remains of the other palaces are insufficient to allow us to draw the plans, let alone conjure up images.


[i] T.S.R. Boase, ‘The Arts of Cyprus: Ecclesiastical Art’ in The art and architecture of the crusader states, ed. H.W. Hazard (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977), 174.

[ii] Wilbrand of Oldenburg, ‘Journey in the Holy Land (1211-1212)’, quoted in Sir Steven Runciman, ‘The Families of Outremer: The Feudal Nobility of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291’ (London: Athlone Press, 1960), 1.

The bulk of this entry is an excerpt from Dr. Schrader's comprehensive study of the crusader states.

Dr. Helena P. Schrader is also the author of six books set in the Holy Land in the Era of the Crusades.


           Buy Now!                                                  Buy Now!                                                    Buy Now!

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